The given calculator provides a method for calculation of Resistance offered by Different conductors.

## Precautions [Must Read]

Step 1: Select length

Step 2: You have the choice to opt for either of the Area or Diameter. Never enter both values at once. This can lead to a faulty result.

Step 3: Select the type of Material.

** Germanium**: It is not included in this list because Germanium has an oscillating value that change and majorly depends on the impurities present. To avoid interference with practical values it is excluded at present.

Always calculate the proper units with proper prefixes.

Temperature: The above-provided parameters and calculations are valid for a temperature of 20°.

## Theory

The resistance of any material depends on four major factors:

- Nature
- Length
- Temperature
- Area

### Nature of Material

Each material has its own nature and its resistivity is different from the other atom.

Silver has a resistivity of 1.645*10^{-8}, whereas copper has 1.723^{-8} .

The resistance is directly proportional to resistivity (ρ).

Mathematically:

*R ∝ ρ*

### Length

In any metal, the moving electrons are responsible for conduction. However, these moving electrons are continuously colliding with other electrons. An increase in the length of wire causes an equal increase in the number of collisions. This, in turn, impacts the resistance of material.

By doubling length, the resistance also doubled, by tripling length the resistance also goes up by 3X.

From above discussion we can develop a mathematical equation:

*R ∝ l*

### Area

The area is another major factor which impacts the resistance of materials. However, Area is inversely related to the resistance. One can easily understand this relationship from flowing water. Let’s assume that water is flowing through a pipe. Now on doubling pipe area the amount of water flowing through the pipe will increase and it will now be easily moving through the pipe.

One might compare the electrons with this water to establish an equivalent analogy. On increasing area, the collisions between moving and static electrons are expected to reduce. This will allow the conducting electrons to carry the charge with an ease.

We can summarise our discussion by using the mathematical relationship:

*R ∝ (1/A)*